La industria japonesa está intensificando el impulso del amoníaco en sus esfuerzos por reducir el dióxido de carbono

Nobuhiko Kubota, director de technología de IHI, tiene la tarea de reinventar el conglomerado industrial japones de casi 170 anos de antiguedad para una nueva era de energía verde.

IHI, al igual que sus pares, including General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, must compete to find new technologies that can reduce heavy carbon emissions, in line with climate objectives. La compañía, que fabrica productos que van desde motores de aviones y turbocompresores hasta tanques de GNL, calderas y propulsores de hetetes, actualmente tiene puestas sus esperanzas en el uso de amoníaco como combustible bajo y carbon.

Esta apuesta audaz por el amoníaco, un compuesto de hydrogeno y nitrogeno que se usuallyo para fabricar fertilizenos, ha ganado poca fuerza entre los inversores en ausencia de objetivos concretos para su contribution a las gancias. But IHI executives say that the success of its technology will have wider ramifications for energy policy in Japan and Asia in general.

“No teener qué ser la única option, pero usar amóníaco es una de las principales tools para avantar hacia la carbono neutralidad”, says Kubota. “The key is to gain social acceptance of a larger distribution of ammonia.”

In the year In 2017, Japan became the first country in the world to develop a national strategy for hydrogen and, within that, it highlighted the potential of ammonia.

Pero desde Antones, Japón se ha cudado atras con reporó a otros paíces en el desarrollo de regulaciones para el uso de hydrogeno. Recently, the United States has been pursuing the European Union in a hydrogen strategy, with the $369 billion inflation reduction law project of President Joe Biden.

Japan, que depende en Grande Médida del Carbone, L Gas Natural and L Petrolio, se ha fijado el objetivo de generare l 1 por siento de toda la electridad a partir de la energía combinada de hidrogen y ammoniaco para 2030.

With this end, the government announced in June a public-private investment of 15 billion yen ($104 million) to build hydrogen and ammonia supply plants. Tokyo also has the ambition to sell the technologies of IHI and other Japanese companies to countries in Southeast Asia, such as Indonesia, Malaysia and India, to help them replace part of the carbon with ammonia and, for carbon emissions, redession de laucir la plants a carbon sin detenerlas. .

Sin embargo, the Japanese promotion of hydrogen and ammonia as clean fuels provoked a strong response from other countries of the G7 and April, when officials and groups environmentalists criticized their viuractú combustibles of other countries of the G7 and April ente. Although ammonia itself does not contain carbon, its production depends largely on fossil fuels and is not commercially viable.

According to the Bloomberg NEF research group, the joint launch of a power plant with 20 percent of ammonia and 80 percent of carbon will emit more carbon dioxide than combined cycle gas turbines, which are used in electricity. Section Del Gas.

But it is expected that a co-ignition rate of 50 percent of ammonia or more is too expensive to compete with other technologies of low emissions.

Gráfico vertical de volumen (miles de tonneladas) que muestra la producción de ammoniaco en Japón

The alternative for Japan is to import ammonia produced in countries with large sources of renewable energy, although this would increase its dependence on imported energy and could pose economic security risks.

Los ejecutivos de IHI dicen que el amoníaco tiene sus beneficios: es un liquido a menos 33 grados centígrados, while el hydrogeno debe enfriarse a menos 253 grados centígrados para conversador en liquido. Y ya existe la infrastructure para sendar el amoníaco.

“For transport and long-distance storage, ammonia has more economic benefits than hydrogen,” says Kubota. “Nuestro motivo ciertamente no es prolongar el uso de combustibles fossiles, sino contributar a reducir las misiones de oxidido de carbono tanto como se posible”

IHI has the objective of introducing gas turbines powered completely by liquid ammonia in 2025 and, in January, signed a memorandum with GE on cooperation in large gas turbines that use 100 percent ammonia. He also said recently that he will spend around 250 billion yen in the development of his own ammonia, to create a new profit engine together with his main business of pneumatic actuators.

Akihiko Numazawa, Gerente General de la Sede de Desarollo Comercial de IHI, Senala que algunos de sus negocios existentes, Debdo a sus fuertes emição de CO2, podría reducirse siginificante en tan solo tres anos. Las Calderas de Carbone, Por Example, Generan Poco Menos del 10 Por Santo de los Ingresos Annules de la Empresa.

“Existe una fuerte sensación de Crisis entre los niveles de gestioni y es por eso que queremos cambiar nuestro negocio sin dejar de ser rentables”, Numazawa.

But the analysts think that IHI’s ammonia technologies have not excited investors in the same way that the commercialization of liquid hydrogen is part of competitors like Kawasaki Heavy Industries. “A los ojos de los inversores, no está haciendo ningún favor al no tener ningún servicio specífico [financial] Dice Graeme McDonald, analyst de Citigroup. “Because they can’t quantify ammonia, ammonia doesn’t receive the attention that the company wants.”

Pero Edward Borlet, Analista de la Correduria CLSA, Aggrega: “El ammoniaco aun no se ha comerciazado o fotografiado de manera efectiva en relación con el hidrogen, y tal vez eso ofrezca potencial. IHI could be the dark horse of the heavy industry.”

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